[Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes


  • Hardcover
  • 575
  • Crimea The Last Crusade
  • Orlando Figes
  • English
  • 28 January 2020
  • 9780713997040

Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary

free download Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary review Crimea The Last Crusade Ø eBook or Kindle ePUB Rule all Orthodox Christians and control the Holy Land Orlando Figes’ major new book reimagines this extraordinary war in which the stakes could not have been higher and which was fought with a terrible mixture of ferocity and incompetence It was both a recognisably modern conflict the first to be extensively photographed the first to employ the telegraph the first ‘newspaper war’ and a traditional one with illiterate soldiers amateur officers and huge casualties caused by disease The iconic moments o. It s Good Friday April 10 1846 Jerusalem is packed with pilgrims on an Easter weekend that happened to fall on the same date in both the Latin and Orthodox calendars The mood is tense The two religious communities had been arguing over who has the right to be first to carry out the rituals at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre one of the holiest places in Christendom standing on the spot where Jesus is said to have been crucifiedThat Friday was to be anything but good The Catholics arrived only to find that the Greeks were there first A fight broke out priest against priest soon to be joined by monks and pilgrims from the respective camps People fought not just with fists but anything they could get a hold of crucifixes candlesticks chalices lamps and incense burners Wood was torn from the sacred shrines and used as clubs Knives and pistols were smuggled into the church By the time the Mehemet Pasha the Ottoman governor of Jerusalem had restored order forty people lay deadThis dreadful incident all in the name of a shared belief marks the departure for Orlando Figes Crimea the Last Crusade the first full account of the Crimean War that I have read I know Figes well one of the best specialists on Russian history in the English speaking world the author of the superlative A People s Tragedy the Russian Revolution 1891 1924 Although his history of the Crimean War lacks the range and power of the latter book he has done a tremendous service placing the conflict firmly within the context of the Eastern uestion the issues arising from the continuing decline of the Ottoman Empire and European power politics as a wholeI m not completely convinced by his crusading hook I have to say Yes the war did begin with a conflict over who had the best claim to protect the holy places within the Turkish empire the Catholic French or the Orthodox Russians and again yes Tsar Nicholas I was strong in his conviction that he was a defender of the true faith a defender of the Orthodox faithful in all the Turkish lands But almost immediately when the fighting started the religious issue was obscured by general issues arising from European geopolitics Besides a war which involved Turkish Muslims British Protestants and French Catholics on one side against Orthodox Russians on the other does not look much like a crusade The Tsar may have begun with crusading thoughts but before his death in March 1855 he was preoccupied by the decline in Russian powerFiges greatest service has been to rescue the conflict from fragmentation and partiality the preserve at best of amateur military historians interested in the clash of arms than the reason for the clash of arms The war may have been tragic and unnecessary but it still marks and important stage in the development of European politics and diplomacy It marks the end of the Concert of Europe the arrangement between the powers to police the settlement of 1815 emerging from the Napoleonic Wars It marks the break in the informal alliance between Russia and Austria that helped preserved that settlement in aspic allowing for the rise of new nations like Italy and Germany So in all it was so much than the Charge of the Light Brigade the Thin Red Line and the Lady with the LampSo far as the conflict itself is concerned there was really no need as the author shows for the Crimean War ever to have been the Crimean War There was no need in other words for the landing on the Crimean peninsula followed by the lengthy and bloody siege of the port of Sevastopol for the simple reason that the Russians had suffered a serious tactical and strategic reverse in early 1854They had previously occupied the semi autonomous Ottoman provinces of Moldavia and Walachia now Romania with a view to pushing south of the Danube in a march on Constantinople But unexpectedly tough resistance by the Turks at the fortress of Silistria prevented any further advance When this was coupled with the landings of the French and British at Varna in what is now Bulgaria and the threat of Austrian intervention the Russians had no choice but to withdraw from the occupied provinces But the blood was up the war had to run its course Russia had to be humbled Sevastopol had to fallCrimea marks a vital stage in the development of warfare combining elements of the old and the new combining the Napoleonic Wars at one remove and the First World War at the other It was the last of the old wars if you like containing the seeds of the new Although it may come as a surprise the campaign on the Crimea itself and its eventual outcome was far a French than a British affair The French contributed many troops It was their capture of the Malakhov redoubt in September 1855 that led to the fall of Sevastopol and the end of the warDiplomatically their role was also decisive Palmerston who succeeded the far less militant Aberdeen as prime minister in 1855 rather took on the role of Cato the Elder Cartago delenda est was his war cry His Carthage was Russia which he intended to remove forever as a threat to the British Empire If he had had his way the Russian borders would have returned to those of 1709 before Peter the Great s victory over the Swedes at Poltava The press was behind his war drive the people were behind him even the ueen was behind him the French were not He did not have his way because Napoleon III had other visions Britain may have had the fleet but the French had the armyThis is a good story an important story told with verve and style told in a wholly compelling fashion with plenty of balance and nuance placing the Crimean War in proper context The author is to be commended for his industry and his scholarship for writing a first class account of an important passage in European history Boys of Summer Volume 1 reimagines this extraordinary war in which the stakes could not have been higher and which was fought with a terrible mixture of ferocity and incompetence It was both a Geeking Out on 11C recognisably modern conflict the first to be extensively photographed the first to employ the telegraph the first ‘newspaper war’ and a traditional one with illiterate soldiers amateur officers and huge casualties caused by disease The iconic moments o. It s Good Friday April 10 1846 Jerusalem is packed with pilgrims on an Easter weekend that happened to fall on the same date in both the Latin and Orthodox calendars The mood is tense The two Attack of the Living Mask Choose Your Own Nightmare #17 religious communities had been arguing over who has the Virtue right to be first to carry out the Breaking Ground rituals at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre one of the holiest places in Christendom standing on the spot where Jesus is said to have been crucifiedThat Friday was to be anything but good The Catholics arrived only to find that the Greeks were there first A fight broke out priest against priest soon to be joined by monks and pilgrims from the IBM's Early Computers History of Computing respective camps People fought not just with fists but anything they could get a hold of crucifixes candlesticks chalices lamps and incense burners Wood was torn from the sacred shrines and used as clubs Knives and pistols were smuggled into the church By the time the Mehemet Pasha the Ottoman governor of Jerusalem had Catholic Social Teaching restored order forty people lay deadThis dreadful incident all in the name of a shared belief marks the departure for Orlando Figes Crimea the Last Crusade the first full account of the Crimean War that I have Island of Fear and Other Science Fiction Stories read I know Figes well one of the best specialists on Russian history in the English speaking world the author of the superlative A People s Tragedy the Russian Revolution 1891 1924 Although his history of the Crimean War lacks the Final Warning The Legacy of Chernobyl range and power of the latter book he has done a tremendous service placing the conflict firmly within the context of the Eastern uestion the issues arising from the continuing decline of the Ottoman Empire and European power politics as a wholeI m not completely convinced by his crusading hook I have to say Yes the war did begin with a conflict over who had the best claim to protect the holy places within the Turkish empire the Catholic French or the Orthodox Russians and again yes Tsar Nicholas I was strong in his conviction that he was a defender of the true faith a defender of the Orthodox faithful in all the Turkish lands But almost immediately when the fighting started the Hedge Witch religious issue was obscured by general issues arising from European geopolitics Besides a war which involved Turkish Muslims British Protestants and French Catholics on one side against Orthodox Russians on the other does not look much like a crusade The Tsar may have begun with crusading thoughts but before his death in March 1855 he was preoccupied by the decline in Russian powerFiges greatest service has been to The Couette and the Boarding School really no need as the author shows for the Crimean War ever to have been the Crimean War There was no need in other words for the landing on the Crimean peninsula followed by the lengthy and bloody siege of the port of Sevastopol for the simple Imagimorphia reason that the Russians had suffered a serious tactical and strategic The Book of Beginnings It's Just Us Here reverse in early 1854They had previously occupied the semi autonomous Ottoman provinces of Moldavia and Walachia now Romania with a view to pushing south of the Danube in a march on Constantinople But unexpectedly tough The Homelanders The Homelanders #1 4 resistance by the Turks at the fortress of Silistria prevented any further advance When this was coupled with the landings of the French and British at Varna in what is now Bulgaria and the threat of Austrian intervention the Russians had no choice but to withdraw from the occupied provinces But the blood was up the war had to Burning Attraction run its course Russia had to be humbled Sevastopol had to fallCrimea marks a vital stage in the development of warfare combining elements of the old and the new combining the Napoleonic Wars at one The Numbers Game Baseball's Lifelong Fascination with Statistics remove and the First World War at the other It was the last of the old wars if you like containing the seeds of the new Although it may come as a surprise the campaign on the Crimea itself and its eventual outcome was far a French than a British affair The French contributed many troops It was their capture of the Malakhov Tall Man Riding redoubt in September 1855 that led to the fall of Sevastopol and the end of the warDiplomatically their The 7 Components of Transformative Organizing Theory role was also decisive Palmerston who succeeded the far less militant Aberdeen as prime minister in 1855 Wild Man Creek rather took on the Tremors of Fury The Days of Ash and Fury #2 role of Cato the Elder Cartago delenda est was his war cry His Carthage was Russia which he intended to Illustrated Workbook for Self Therapy for Your Inner Critic remove forever as a threat to the British Empire If he had had his way the Russian borders would have

free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando FigesCrimea The Last Crusade

free download Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary review Crimea The Last Crusade Ø eBook or Kindle ePUB The terrible conflict that dominated the mid 19th century the Crimean War killed at least 800000 men and pitted Russia against a formidable coalition of Britain France and the Ottoman Empire It was a war for territory provoked by fear that if the Ottoman Empire were to collapse then Russia could control a huge swathe of land from the Balkans to the Persian Gulf But it was also a war of religion driven by a fervent populist and ever ferocious belief by the Tsar and his ministers that it was Russia’s task to. The Crimean War A History by Orlando Figes is a large history of the Crimean War between Russia on one side and France Britain and the Ottoman Empire on the other The war began over religious scuffling between Catholic and Greek Orthodox pilgrims in Jerusalem then part of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman s had recently passed policy favourable to Catholic pilgrims at the expense of Orthodox pilgrims in the city with religious rights and priorities being granted to Catholic churches at the behest of the French government Previously Russia had imposed similar measures on the Ottoman government for their pilgrims and this tit for tat led to a strong response by the Russian government An ultimatum was sent and Russian troops sent into the Danubian principalities Wallachia and Moldova which were Romanian states under Ottoman suzerainty France and Britain were both alarmed by this move and sent their backing to the Ottoman government Britain was uite concerned with growing Russian power in the region and was afraid that the balance of power would shift to Russia on the continent France under the newly crowned Emperor Napoleon III needed a strong military showing to gain prestige at home and uell growing unrest within the armyRussia s aims were many First they wished to gain the status of Protector of the Orthodox in the Ottoman Empire in order to encourage an end to anti Christian policies in the Porte and give the Russian s a means to meddle in internal Ottoman affairs The Russians also had pan Slavic intentions and were interested in seeing nation states created in Serbia Bulgaria and Romania all then under Ottoman control Russia s borders with the Ottoman s were also contested in the Caucus mountains and in Bessarabia in RomaniaMoldova Russia did not believe that Britain would join in the hostilities and was also counting on the support of Austria their long time ally Russia had made diplomatic maneuvers in Britain that seemed to suppose an indifferent response from the British but in fact Russophobes had become influential in the government and Britain sided strongly with the Ottomans The first maneuvers of the war were in Romania but the pan Slavic elements of the early war disuieted the Austrian government which had Slavic populations in Croatia and Bohemia The Austrian government did not join the Russian war and even mobilized troops to threaten the Russians into a withdrawal from the Danubian principalities At this point in the war the Russians also used their Black Sea fleet to bombard the Turkish coast and destroyed the city of Sinope The Turks encouraged an uprising by Muslim tribes in the Circassian and Caucus regions of Russia and sent men and material in support The other allies France and Britain began to debate plans for attack Sorties into the Baltic to encourage the Swedes to join the war against Russia and toward St Petersburg were rejected as too dangerous Marching a land army into Poland to support a Polish uprising was strongly favoured by the French government but ultimately rejected as it would have had a hostile reaction in Prussia and Austria both states with their own Polish minorities The Crimea was the region chosen This valuable peninsula allowed Russia to control Black Sea trade and put pressure on the Ottoman government due to its important position in the Black Sea trading routes and its transportation capacities to Constantinople If Britain and France could take the region from Russia this valuable spot could be shaved off the Russian Empire and reduce its power in the region and weaken it as a whole War aims were grand from the allies who wanted nothing than the removal of Russian influence from Western Europe Allied troops landed in the Crimea and uickly engaged the Russians in the Battle of Alma in which the allies handed the Russian s their first defeat However allied mismanagement of the war would become clear soon after The allies then settled in for the Siege of Sevastopol which would last many months and lead to thousands upon thousands of allied and Russian deaths These deaths were the result of tragic mismanagement of logistics and supplies most notably from the British Greatcoats were not supplied to troops in the winter tents were not weather proof food was scarce and of poor uality and hospital ships were incompetently euipped to the point of malicious neglect The British public learned of these tidings through the press and both mobilized in support of the troops and brought down the British government in support of a rational approach to the war British performance in the Crimean War was notably lacking and the shortcomings encouraged a modernization of the army toward WWI France suffered from shortcomings as well but the French army was much better euipped during the war The French paved roads from the landing sight to the French camps around Sevastopol and the French army was well supplied with winter gear food and luxuries French rifles were also far superior to Russian arms during the war and could outpace the Russian s by hundreds of meters The French like the Russians and British fell short in warfare The Crimean War saw the eclipse of cavalry as a valuable fighting unit with notable massacres of British and French cavalry units a commonality in early skirmishes Siege works trenches and artillery as well as infantry bayonet charges against fortified trench lines was the common maneuver during the war leading to high casualties on both sides These maneuvers were the per cursors of trench warfare in the early twentieth century Russia s military was far behind in terms of military technology in the 1850 s It had peaked during the defeat of Napoleon in 1812 and had done little to improve since then Russian rifles were horribly incompetent during the war and a similar incompetency beset the Russian high command as that of the allies Russian casualties were massive during the war as generals changed plans mid maneuver battalion commanders ignored orders and Russian troops struggled to survive with little supplies Russia made up for this in its sophisticated defensive engineering at Sevastopol which kept the allies at bay for many months and ground their armies to a halt Russian field pieces and artillery were also up to standard during the war and performed well against the allies giving as good as they got during bombardments The fall of Sevastopol marked the end of the war as Russia diplomatically isolated and humiliated by its loss as well as recently facing the death of Tsar Nicholas I was willing to seek peace The French were also craving an end to hostilities Popular opinion in France for the war was stagnant to hostile and rumors of coup attempts began to alarm Emperor Napoleon French rapprochement with Russia was swift and their mutual hostility with Austria began to transcend even the war itself Peace came in Paris with Russia ceding a chunk of Bessarabia to the Ottomans the Black Sea domination by Russian fleets coming to and end and a mutual guarantee of the rights of Christians in the Ottoman Empire signed by all parties at the table Russia lost some territory and its valuable hold over the Ottoman Empire However Russia was able to gain back all it had lost and within about 20 years of the wars conclusion Unrest and reprisal between Christian and Muslim communities in the Ottoman Empire led to the collapse of good will to the Porte by Western powers and allowed Russia to orchestrate the independence of Bulgaria Serbia Montenegro and Romania from the Ottomans with a subseuent return of Bessarabian territories lost in the war The growing power of PrussiaGermany and its defeat of Austria and France in land wars gave way to an agreement between Austria Germany and Russia renouncing the Black Sea clauses in the peace treaty Russia also stepped up its game in the Caucus defeating rebels in the region and pushing back British influence in Persia Even so the dominance of Russia in European affairs had ended The Concert of Europe alliance between Austria and Russia was broken and never repaired French and British interests would remain aligned and Russia would ultimately lose the game in the Ottoman Empire to the two Western powers interests Russia held some sway in the Balkan s but these fractious states would drag Russia into many dangerous wars leading ultimately to the collapse of the Russian Empire after WWI The Crimean War had minor territorial conseuences but massive conseuences for the peace and stability of EuropeFiges has written an interesting and in depth account of the war moving past legends like the Light Brigade and Florence Nightingale although he talks about them and instead examines the war through the eyes of the various belligerents in the war The diplomatic and religious precursors to the war are examined as well as the opening maneuvers and the immediate and future conseuences Battles are described in blow by blow accounts examining maneuvers by each army defensive lines sorties and charges and so on in an in depth look at the battles The logistical considerations or lack thereof are examined The politics and diplomacy behind the war are looked at in depth This is a really well written account of the war and features good criticism great analysis and an interesting comparison of perspective between the belligerents I had some small concerns about sourcing in a few of the chapters but aside from this this is a great history book and one worth a read for those interested in European history from this era as well as those looking for a good chunky military history book A great read and easily recommended to history buffs

free download Crimea The Last Crusade

free download Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary review Crimea The Last Crusade Ø eBook or Kindle ePUB F the war the Charge of the Light Brigade the Siege of Sebastopol the impact of Florence Nightingale are all here but there is also a rich sense of the Crimea itself and the culture that was destroyed by the fighting Drawing on a huge range of fascinating sources Figes also gives the lived experience of the war from that of the ordinary British soldier in his snow filled trench to the haunted gloomy narrow figure of Tsar Nicholas himself as he vows to take on the whole world in his hunt for religious salvati. A solid well written general history of the Crimean WarFiges describes the history of the war from all sides and his coverage of the war s origins is particularly strong Although many of the wars after the Napoleonic era seemed like minor affairs Figes stresses that the Crimean War was most definitely not and he rams home the huge amount of casualties among combatants and civilians how primitive the Russian war effort could be and how amateurish the British could be Figes is not terribly sympathetic to Lord RaglanFiges also ably discusses the war s conseuences describing how it disrupted the post Napoleonic Concert of Europe how Sardinia s role contributed to France s decision to intervene in Italy and how postwar Russia turned to domestic reform and became even suspicious of western Europe Figes also emphasizes the war s status as the first to be brought about by the pressure of the press and by public opinion Some and better maps would have helped though and Figes coverage of events in the Baltic Anatolia and the Caucasus might strike some as relatively sparse Also Figes writes that the Austro Hungarians were in constant retreat in the Balkans they were The military operations take up only about a third of the narrative and Figes doesn t always provide much analysis or explanation here Figes also writes that the war was the first total war but this argument seems underdeveloped He also argues that millet system contributed to the Ottomans decline although the replacement of the millet system with nationalism seems plausible Elsewhere Figes writes that the war was primarily religious but the rhetoric of the time wasn t terribly uniue and it does seem like empire and the Eastern uestion were significant He also argues that public opinion was a major factor in the war s origins which might be true for Britain probably less so in FranceA balanced insightful and engaging history


10 thoughts on “[Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

  1. says: free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

    [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes Excellent This is actually three books The first one up to p 140 or so is about the origins of the Crimean war A

  2. says: [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

    free download Crimea The Last Crusade [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes This book began rather slowly for me but I soon became engrossed in Figes' narrative of this somewhat forgotten war which claimed so many lives for so little I have always been fascinated by the Crimean War and this book added to my knowledge as the author had access to sources not previously available to other authors It was a war of incompetent leadership missed opportunities outdated military tactics and rampant dis

  3. says: [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes

    free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary free download Crimea The Last Crusade The Crimean War A History by Orlando Figes is a large history of the Crimean War between Russia on one side and France Bri

  4. says: [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

    [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes It’s Good Friday April 10 1846 Jerusalem is packed with pilgrims on an Easter weekend that happened to fall on the same d

  5. says: free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary free download Crimea The Last Crusade

    [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes A comprehensive history of the war with excellent chapters on the aftermath in world politics and national identit

  6. says: [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes free download Crimea The Last Crusade

    free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes In this history of the Crimean War by Orlando Figes the fighting does not begin until about a third of the way into the book This is not a weakness however because understanding the events that led to the war is es

  7. says: free download Crimea The Last Crusade Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

    free download Crimea The Last Crusade [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes To look into given the recent developmentsOrlando Figes is a somewhat disgraced author however I would still like a flick through this May 2014 President Putin's visit to Crimea was welcomed there but criticised

  8. says: [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary free download Crimea The Last Crusade

    free download Crimea The Last Crusade free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary A complete book on the Crimean War that starts from far behind to reveal all its causes and continues to provide a wealth of information on every aspect of this conflict Interestingly the author does this in a way that makes the book part of the serious historiography but also completely accessible to the general public It is certainly ideal for those who know little about this subject with most of them coming

  9. says: free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

    free download ã eBook or Kindle ePUB ✓ Orlando Figes [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes Orlando Figes ✓ 3 summary A solid well written general history of the Crimean WarFiges describes the history of the war from all sides and his coverage of the war’s origins is particularly strong Although many of the wars after the Napoleonic era seemed like minor affairs Figes stresses that the Crimean War was most definitely not and he rams home the huge amount of

  10. says: [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes

    [Crimea The Last Crusade] E–pub À Orlando Figes I strongly recommend this book to anyone who has any interest in current conflict in UkraineCrimea who wants to understand historical geopolitical and political roots of idiotic modern strife between Russia and the West and who at the same time is sick of media taking sides and in fact enkindling the conflict

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